You are here Biopharmaceutical/ Genomic Glossary Homepage > Molecular Biology term index

Molecular biology term index
Evolving Terminology for Emerging Technologies
Comments? Questions? Revisions?
Mary Chitty MSLS
Last revised July 03, 2019

Not a comprehensive list of terms, but a quick and dirty finding aid while I'm working on getting these glossaries into a (long overdue) searchable database.

How to look for other unfamiliar  terms    
   Ethics      Chemistry term index   Drug discovery & development terms index    Healthcare term index     Informatics terms index    Technologies terms index

Biology Pharmaceutical active center, agonist, analog, antagonist,  antisense…aptamer, , binding…,deorphanize, drug leads, drug receptors, , efficacy, enzymes … epitope,  homologue, hormone, ,inhibitors,  intrinsic activity, ligand, paratope, permeability,  pharmacophores, prodrug,  promiscuous drugs, promiscuous inhibitors, receptors, recognition site, selectivity,  solubility, specificity, substrate 

Biomolecules biological macromolecules, biomolecular interactions, biomolecules, chemical compounds,  macromolecular…,micromolecules,  mole, mol, molecular biology, molecular weight, molecule, multimer, nucleic acid, nucleotide, oligo, oligomer, oligonucleotides, phospholipids, polymers, proteins, purines, pyrimidine, relative molecular mass, supramolecular 

Cell biology Adenosine TriPhosphate ATP, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell ..., cellular ...,centromere, chromatin, chromosome, cytogenetics, cytotoxic T Cell, dendritic cells, , developmental biology, diploid, effector, endothelium,  euchromatin, eukaryotes,  exosomes, extracellular…, fibroblasts, fusion, gamete, gene fusion, germ cells, haploid, heterochromatin, Human Cell Atlas, human cloning, karyotype, library,  lymphokines, lysis, meiosis, mesenchymal, mesoderm, microvesicles, mitochondria, mitochondrion, mitosis, morphometry, multicellular, Natural Killers cells NK Cells, Natural Killer T Cells NKT, nucleus, organelles,  ploidies, ploidy, programmed cell death, prokaryotes, ribosomes, second messenger..., somatic cells, spliceosomes, subcellular fractionation, T Cells, T Cell receptors, T helper, T Lymphocytes, telomere, Toll Like Receptors TLRs, Tumor Necrosis Factor TNF, vesicles, virtual cell 

DNA catalytic DNA, DNA forensics, double helix, EST Expressed Sequence Tag, genomic DNA, intergenic DNA, intragenic DNA,  intron, "junk DNA", mitochondrial DNA, non-coding DNA, ORESTES, regulatory sequence, repetitive sequences, sticky ends  

DNA Sequences  & beyond
3' ..., 5' ...,ATCG, adenine, base, central dogma,  cytosine, downstream, enhancer, exteins, genetic code, guanine, inteins, LINES, promoter ..., protein ..., RNA ..., reading frames, reference sequences, reverse transcription, SINES, sequence, splice..., splicing, terminator..., thymine, transcription ..., translation, URF, UTR, upstream

Expression, genes & more  analysis..., biological networks, diauxic shift, differential …, downregulation, expression ..., gene clustering, gene expression, gene expression regulation, gene shaving, genome expression, genome profiling, global regulators, metagene, mRNA expression, molecular indexing, overexpression, pathways,… protein expression ..., protein profiling, RNA expression, SAGE, subtractive expression, transactivators, transcript..., transcription, transcription factors, upregulation, whole genome expression

Functional genomics age, biochemical function, biological function, biological process, comparative genomics, deductive genomics, function, functional ..., gene function, genome function, Gene Ontology, genome function, homolog, hypomorph, molecular function, ortholog, orthologous, paralog, positional cloning, similarity, xenology, xenologous 

Gene definitions  alternative exons, alternative splicing, cDNA, cis…, cistron, coding…, constitutive exons, CpG islands, EST, exons, gene ..., genetic structures, localize, locus, mobile genetic elements, operon, ORF, ORFans, polycistronic, polygene, regulon, repressors, signal peptide coding sequence, synteny, transcript clusters,    
Gene categories antibody genes, candidate genes, chimeric gene, constitutive genes, developmental genes, differentiated genes, DNA library, DNA repair genes, essential genes, extranuclear genes, gene components, gene library, genomic library, housekeeping genes, hypothetical genes, intermediate early genes, immunoglobulin genes Ig, lethal genes, luxury genes, microchondrial genes, nested genes, non-structural genes, nuclear gene, operator genes, orphan genes, overlapping genes, parasitism genes, plasmid genes, pleiotropic genes, pseudogenes, putative genes, regulator genes, regulatory region, reporter genes, silent genes, split genes, structural genes, suppressor genes, virulence genes 

Genomic biology overview
   Basic genetics & genomics
  biocomplexity, completed genomes,  complex ..., EMBL, genetic architecture, , genome ..., genomic ..., HUGO, Human Genome Project, Joint Genome Initiative, Mendelian genetics, monogenic, NHGRI, optogenetics, “parts list”,  penetrance, phenotype,  phenotyping, polygenic, post-genomic, RIKEN, Sanger, whole genome... 
Genomics categories agricultural genomics, applied genomics,  combinatorial, environmental, food,  forward genetics, forward genomics, genome transplantation, genomics, high- throughput, industrial, intergenomics,  metagenome, metagenomics,  microbial genome,  paleogenomics, phage, quantitative, subtractive genomics

Glycosciences  carbohydrate..., glycoarrays, glycobioinformatics, glycobiology, glycoconjugates, glycodendrimers, glycoengineering, glycogenomics, glycolipids, glycome, glycomics, glycomimetics, glyconanotechnology, glyconomics, glycopeptides, glycoscience, glycosylation, glycotechnology, lectins, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, proteoglycans, SAAH Sugar Amino Acid Hybrids, saccharides 

Maps genomic & genetic 2D gel maps, BAC maps, bottom up, cell mapping maps, chromosomal maps mapping, clone based maps, CNV map,  comparative genome mapping, contig maps, cosmid maps, cytogenetic maps, disease maps, epigenome maps, epitope mapping,, evolutionary genetics, expression map mapping, functional maps, gene expression map, gene map mapping, genetic linkage map, genetic map, genome control maps, genome map mapping, genomic cartography, genomic maps mapping, haplotype map, HapMap, high density maps, high dimensional brain mapping, high resolution ..., International HapMap, linkage maps, localizome mapping, locus, macrorestriction map,  mapping technologies, maps, markers, molecular interaction maps, nucleotide mapping, peptide mapping, phenome mapping maps, , physical mapping maps, protein expression map mapping, protein interaction mapping, protein linkage  maps, proteome maps, QTL mapping, RFLP, radiation hybrid mapping, receptor mapping, resolution, restriction mapping, SNP maps, SSR, STS…, tandem repeats, top down, transcript maps, transcriptome maps, YAC maps 

Metabolic profiling biochemical ..., Biopathways BioPAX, cellular pathways, cell signaling, disproportionate drug metabolite, gene regulatory pathways in vitro screens – drug metabolism, metabolic engineering, metabolic …., metabolism, metabolite…, metabolon, molecular networks, network…  pathways ..., phenotype profiling, reaction phenotyping, signal transduction, signaling pathways

Model & other organisms amoeba, animal model, Arabidopsis, C. elegans, congenic mice, Dictyostelium discoideum, disease models, Drosophila, e. , fly, fruit fly, frog, Gene Ontology, GMO, knockout …, model organisms, mouse, Muridae, murine, Pichia, rat rates Norvegicus, Saccharomyces cerevisae, transgenic…, virtual organism, worm…, Xenopus, yeast, zebrafish 

Nomenclature, genes, proteins & species:  carbohydrate, chemicals InCHi Chemical identifier, clone, drug, enzyme, gene, human gene, model organisms, post-genomic, protein, species, uBio

-Omes and -omics alleome, allergenome, allergenomics, bibliome, bibliomics, biome, biomics, cellome, cellomics, chaperome, CHOmics, chromatinomics, chromonome, complexome, connectome, cross-omics, cytome, cytomics, degradome, degradomics, diagnomics, epigenomics, exome, exposome, expressome, fluxome, fluxomics, foldome, fragmentome, fragmentomics….,functome, functomics, hemostaseome, hygienomics, ignorome, immunome, immunomics, immunoproteomics,  incidentalome, nflammasome, ignorome, integromics, interactome, kinome, kinomics, ligandome, ligandomics, lipidome, lipidomics, localizome, membranome, metabolome, metabolomics, metabonome, metabonomics, metallome, metallomics, metaproteomics, methylome, methylomics, microbiome, mitochondriomics, metagenomics, morphome, morphomics, neurogenome, nucleome, -omes, -omics, oncogenomics, operome, operomics, ORFeome, ORFeomics, parasitome, pathome, pathomics, peptalbiomics, peptidome, peptidomics, pharmacogenome, pharmacomethylomics, pharmacophylogenomics, pharmanome, phenome, phenomics, phosphatome, Physiome, physiomics, physionomics, post-translatomics, promoterome, proteogenomics,  pseudogenome, pseudogenomics, psychiatome, regulome…, relevant me, resourceome, ribosomics, ridiculome, Rnome,  RNomics, robotgenomics, secretome, secretomics, separomics, signalome, somatonome, strainomics, strainomics, targetomics, toponomics, toxicomics, toxome, transcriptome, transcriptomics, transductome, transgenome, ,  translatome, transportome, unfoldome, unfoldomics, unknome, vaccinome, vaccinomics, variome, variomics, VeloceGenomics, viromics,  

Phylogenomics  automated phylogenomics, cenancestor, clade, cladistics, evolutionary ..., genome prospecting, horizontal gene transfer, lateral genomics, molecular phylogenetics, molecular taxonomy, monophyletic, phylogenetic ..., phylogenomics, phyloinformatics, phylome, positional homology, punctuated equilibrium, rooted gene trees, species, subtree..., super- orthologs, systematics, ultra- paralogs

Proteins  amino acid…, amino terminus …, cell surface receptors, characterization protein,  C-terminus carboxyl terminus…,inclusion bodies, interleukins, lymphokines,  methylation, N-terminus, peptides, peptidome, phosphorylation, poly A, polyadenylation, post-translational modifications, prenylation, primary structure,  proteasome, protein transport, proteins…., residue 
Protein categories antifreeze proteins,  basic proteins,  carrier proteins, cellular proteins, chemokines, chromosome proteins, chimera protein, constitutive proteins, complex proteins, cytokines, designer proteins, DNA binding proteins, factitious proteins, fibrous proteins, fluorescent proteins, full-length proteins, fusion proteins, gatekeeper proteins, globular proteins, glycoproteins, GTP-binding proteins, heat shock proteins, growth factors, housekeeping proteins, hub proteins, hyperthermal proteins,  hypothetical proteins, immediate-early proteins, immunoglobulin iG, integral membrane proteins, interferons, low abundance proteins, luxury proteins, membrane proteins, membrane transport proteins, mitochondrial proteins, molecular chaperones, moonlighting proteins, mosaic proteins, naked proteins,  nuclear proteins, nucleoproteins, oligomeric proteins, orphan proteins, peripheral membrane proteins, peripheral proteins, polypeptides, polyproteins, probable proteins, proteases, protein complex,  protein RNA interactions, putative proteins, recombinant proteins, regulatory proteins, repressor proteins, RING finger proteins, secreted proteins, structural homology protein, structural proteins, transport proteins, truncation, ubiquitin’s, wild-type proteins, zinc finger proteins
Protein structures 3D protein structures, aggregation, domain ..., fold ...,  misfolding, motif, multi-domain proteins, multimeric, native state, peptide ..., protein domains, protein families, protein folding…, protein sequence, protein structure, protein superfamilies, quaternary, secondary, tertiary protein structures
adult stem cells, cancer stem cells, cell differentiation, cell research, cell therapies, chronmatinomics, differentiation, embryonic stem cells, enucleated, fetal stem cells, hematopoiesis, human embryonic stem cells, human induced pluripotent stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells iPS, mesenchymal stem cells, mesoderm, multipotent stem cells, neoplastic stem cells, neural stem cells, nuclear transfer, pluripotent stem cells, progenitor cells, quiescence, Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer SCNT, stem cells, stemness, totipotent, unipotent

Proteomics:   bait, cellular proteome, complete proteome,  dissociator assays, homointeraction, HUPO , NHLBI Proteomics Core,  perturbagens, plasma proteome, ,  proteome..., proteomic proteomics ..., reverse two hybrid, subproteomes, targeted proteomics, two-hybrid,  whole proteome interaction mining,  yeast- one two three hybrid 
Proteomics categories:  applied proteomics,  bottom-up proteomics,   computational proteomics, differential,  functional proteomics,  location proteomics, ,  microproteomics, molecular proteomics, phosphoproteomics,  physiological proteomics, predictive proteomics, quantitative proteomics  quantitative proteomics, regulatory proteome, , reverse proteomics, , shotgun  proteomics, structural proteomics, subproteomics, , targeted, proteomics,  tissue proteomics, top down proteomics, toponomics,

RNA alternative RNA splicing, amplified antisense RNA aRNA, antisense RNA, catalytic RNA cRNA, codon, complementary RNA, DNA directed RNA polymerase, ds, extracellular RNA  exRNA, hairpin ribozymes , hammerhead ribozymes, initiator codon, lariat RNAs, lincRNAs, messenger RNA mRNA, microRNA  miRNA, non-coding RNA ncRNA, pRNA, post=-transcriptional RNA processing, precursor RNA, pre-mRNA splicing, retroviruses, ribonome, ribonomics, ribonucleic acid RNA, riboproteomics, riboregulatin, ribosomal …,ribotyping, ribozymes, Ribonucleic acid RNA,  RNAi RNA interference,  RNAI mitochondrial, rRNA genes, scRNA, Short hairpin RNA shRNA, Small interfering RNA siRNA, Small number RNA snRNA, Small Nucleolar RNA snoRNA, Small Temporal RNA stRNA, start codon, terminator codon, transferRNA  tRNA, trans-splicing…, uracil

Sequences DNA & beyond: 3” [prime] …5’ [prime]…, adenine, amino acid sequence, ATCG, attenuator, base, base pair bps,, central dogma…, cis-acting sequences, cytosine, ds, downstream, enhancer…,genetic code, genomic sequence, guanine, human sequence, inteins, interspersed repetitive sequence, LINES, LTR, locus control region, ORF  Open Reading Frame, operator regions, promoter…, protein splicing, reading frames, reference sequences, retroelements, retrotransposons, reverse transcription, SINES, sequence, silencer elements transcriptional, splice…, splicing, template, terminal repeat sequences, terminator…, trans-acting factors, transcription…, translation…, transposons, URF, UTR, upstream

SNPs & other genetic variations allele…, allelic, anonymous SNPs, association studies, bi-allelic, biological variation, candidate gene studies, candidate SNPs, CEPH, chimerism, coding SNPs, common variants, complex trait, Copy Number Polymorphisms CNP, copy number variations CNV, correlation studies, DNA fingerprinting, DNA foot printing, DNA ligase enzymes, deletions, di-allelic, direct approach, duplication, endonucleases, epiallele, epigenetic…,  epigenome, epigenomics, epigenotype, epistasis, expression SNPs, exon skipping, exon SNPS, founder populations, frame-shift mutation, functional variants, gene based  SNPs, gene disease associations, genetic drift, genetic variation….,  haploinsufficiency, haplotype blocks, Hardy Weinberg law, heritability, Human Genome Variation Society, idiomorphism, indels, informative polymorphisms, insertion, intra-genic sequence variants, intron SNPs, leaky mutation, linkage…, loss of function mutation, markers, microsatellite…,minisatellite repeats, , missense mutation, mosaicism, multifactorial…, multigenic, multiple alleles, mutation…, negative selection, neutral mutation, nonsense mutation, non-synonymous SNPs, nucleotide diversity, mull mutation, oligogenic, phenocopy, pleitropism  pleiotropy, point mutations, polygenic, polymorphisms, population genetics, population genomics, promoter SNPs, protein polymorphisms, protein variations, random genome wide association studies, reassortment, recombinant, regional scanning, regulatory SNPs, repeats, restriction analysis, restriction enzymes . ribotyping, satellite, scanning, scoring, segregation, Single Amino Acid Polymorphisms SAAPs, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms SNPs, slightly deleterious alleles, SNP haplotypes, SNP human, splice variants, SSCP, SSEP, STRs, structural variants, STSS, suppression, synonymous SNP, rag SNPs, tandem repeats, tri-allelic, variants, VNTRs, whole genome duplication, wild-type

Stem cells: adult stem cells, cancer stem cells, cell differentiation, cell research, cell therapies, chronmatinomics, differentiation, embryonic stem cells, enucleated, fetal stem cells, hematopoiesis, human embryonic stem cells, human induced pluripotent stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells iPS, mesenchymal stem cells, mesoderm, multipotent stem cells, neoplastic stem cells, neural stem cells, nuclear transfer, pluripotent stem cells, progenitor cells, quiescence, Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer SCNT, stem cells, stemness, totipotent, unipotent

Biology Resources
Genomics Conferences
Genomics CDs, DVDs 

How to look for other unfamiliar  terms


Contact | Privacy Statement | Alphabetical Glossary List | Tips & glossary FAQs | Site Map