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Related glossaries include Ethics, Molecular Medicine, Genomics See especially complex, Mendelian genetics, penetrance, polygenic and post- genomic, Technologies overview especially disruptive technologies, emerging technologies, enabling technologies, nonlinear.
How does genomics differ from genetics?
Genetics is much more linear than genomics, complicated but not as complex as genomics. There is a whole lot more we need to understand, some of which we are only beginning to get glimpses of. It is exciting, but humbling to realize how much remains to be learned.
Doing (a few of) the numbers: The scale of genomics and bioinformatics
Current bioinformatics and chemoinformatics methods of analysis and interpretation are having difficulty keeping up with the rapid growth in sequencing data. New technologies such as microarrays (and advances in existing ones such as mass spectrometry) are leading to rapid growth in new terminology. An even bigger challenge then new vocabulary is the conceptual shift from classical genetics to a more dynamic genomic “big picture” understanding of genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and structural genomics.
DNA sequences are essentially linear snapshots. In the human genome less than 2 % of the DNA is genes. To understand genes' functions we need to look at 3D protein structures, and to begin to decipher physiological processes we need to examine changes in gene and protein expression over time (4D). Our knowledge of genetic variations is still sketchy and crucial to an understanding of the role these differences play in pharmacogenomics. Will genomic approaches lead to faster drug discovery and development? How can we sort out the incremental advances from the true paradigm shifts without experiencing information overload?
Biology for non-biologists,
for students and teachers
Particularly for students & teachers
- but potentially useful
Bio-Interactive, Howard Hughes Medical Institute http://www.biointeractive.org/
DNA Learning Center, DNA Lab, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, US http://vector.cshl.org/ A clearinghouse for information on DNA science, genetic medicine, and biotechnology, to provide an interactive learning environment for students, teachers, and nonscientists, extending the Laboratory's traditional research and postgraduate education mission to the college, precollege, and public levels.
Cambridge MA, US for students
https://www.broadinstitute.org/for-students for Educators
https://www.broadinstitute.org/for-educators For the Public
Genetics and Rare Diseases Information Center, NIH Teaching Resources https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/guides/pages/128/teaching-resources
Genetics Education Center, Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, 2002 http://www.kumc.edu/gec/ For educators interested in human genetics and the human genome project.
Virtual Cell Webpage http://www.ibiblio.org/virtualcell/
Teacher Program, MIT, US http://www.wi.mit.edu/programs/teacher/index.html
Science literacy: Project 2061, American Association for the Advancement of Science http://www.project2061.org/ A long- term initiative working to reform K-12 science, mathematics, and technology education nationwide.
starting points for almost anyone wanting to know more about genomics
Biointeractive, Howard Hughes Medical Institute http://www.biointeractive.org/ Virtual labs, animations, virtual museums, web videos, click and learn tutorials.
BBC News In-depth Human Genome, UK http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/low/english/in_depth/sci_tech/2000/human_genome/default.stm Current news from the UK, articles on what the genome can do for you, and archives on completed genomes.
Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990-2003, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE, US http://web.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/index.shtml Completed in 2003, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was a 13-year project coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health. During the early years of the HGP, the Wellcome Trust (U.K.) became a major partner; additional contributions came from Japan, France, Germany, China, and others. ...Though the HGP is finished, analyses of the data will continue for many years.
Meet the Decoders, Nova, PBS, US. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/decoders.html Interviews with Francis Collins (NHGRI), Craig Venter, Eric Lander (Whitehead Institute)
Genome News Network, Center for the Advancement of Genomics (TCAG) http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/ Online news, 2000 - present.
Structures of Life, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, https://publications.nigms.nih.gov/structlife/ reveals how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. PDF, video
Welcome to the NCBE, National Centre for Biotechnology Education (NCBE), UK http://www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk/ Listservs and other teacher resources, protocols for classrooms and school labs, GM food, lab safety, links.
What's it going to mean to me?
Genomes to Life, US Department of Energy http://doegenomestolife.org/
Your genes, your choices: Exploring the choices raised by genetic research Catherine Baker, part of the AAAS Science + Literacy for Health Project http://ehrweb.aaas.org/ehr/books/index.html
Patient resources links to websites for general patient and disease related information.
Sources for more information
Lodish, Harvey, Molecular Cell Biology 4th ed, 2000 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21475/ The more we learn about the structure, function, and development of different organisms, the more we recognize that all life processes exhibit remarkable similarities. Molecular Cell Biology concentrates on the macromolecules and reactions studied by biochemists, the processes described by cell biologists, and the gene control pathways identified by molecular biologists and geneticists. In this millennium, two gathering forces will reshape molecular cell biology: genomics, the complete DNA sequence of many organisms, and proteomics, a knowledge of all the possible shapes and functions that proteins employ.
Useful metaphor? Grain of rice on a chessboard, doubles each square.
Genome sizes – how many genes?
Feb. 2001 Science and Nature working drafts t Human genome issues estimated 30K- 40K human genes (much lower than expected), but alternative splicing (in genes) is much higher, producing more variant proteins. Compared to proteins, genes were easy. Proteomics is the next step.
The barley and wheat genomes have more genes than the human genome. Joachim Messing, "Do Plants have more genes than people?" HMS Beagle, June 21, 2001 Also appeared in Trends in Plant Science, 6(5): 195- 196, 2001.
grows at an exponential rate,
From 1982 to the present, the number of bases in GenBank has doubled
approximately every 18 months.
What does a microarray look like? https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_microarray.svg
True microarray story
informatics: Newly created information is stored in four physical media � print, film, magnetic and optical � and seen or heard in four information flows through electronic channels � telephone, radio and TV, and the Internet. This study of information storage and flows analyzes the year 2002 in order to estimate the annual size of the stock of new information recorded in storage media, and heard or seen each year in information flows. Where reliable data was available we have compared the 2002 findings to those of our 2000 study (which used 1999 data) in order to describe a few trends in the growth rate of information. Lyman, Peter and Hal R. Varian, "How Much Information", 2003 http://groups.ischool.berkeley.edu/archive/how-much-info-2003/
Really big numbers Computers & computing peta (exa, zetta, yotta), petaflop, teraflop
Really small numbers Ultrasensitivity glossary atto, femto, micro, nano, pico, yocto, zepto
Perspectives: Powers of Ten National High Field Magnetic Lab, Florida State Univ. US http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/activities/students/perspectives.html
of drug discovery and diagnostics
Cost per raw megabase of DNA Sequence, NIH NHGRI 2001-2017
Useful metaphor Sailing and tacking - getting there as quickly as possible: Straight ahead stops dead, tacking from side to side is the fastest way to get where you’re going
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