term index Related glossaries include Cell
& tissue technologies Gene amplification &
PCR; Labels, Signaling & detection;
Nanoscience & miniaturization
10-18 mole. One quintillionth.
: 10-15 mole. One quadrillionth. From the Norwegian for fifteen, approved by the International Committee [on
Weights and Measures] in 1961. [OED]
Signaling & detection
mole, mol: The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12.
2. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be
atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of
such particles. [Bureau International
de poids et mesures, SI base units, Système International d'Unités, (International System of Units)
nano (various definitions): Nanoscience
nanomole: 10 -9 mole. One
billionth. From the Greek for dwarf. One thousand- millionth.
Adopted by the Union International [OED]
mole. One trillionth. From the Spanish pico beak, peak, (in phrases) little bit. [OED]
quantum dot: Labels,
Signaling & detection
single cell :
& tissue technologies
single cell diagnostics:
single DNA molecule sequencing: Sequencing
Single Electron Devices SED: Nanoscience
single molecule detection:
Recent advances in optical imaging and biomechanical techniques have demonstrated that it is possible to
make observations on the dynamic behavior of single molecules, to determine mechanisms of action at the level of an individual molecule, and to explore
heterogeneity among different molecules within a population.... Despite the promise of single molecule methods, there are
a number of technical challenges that must be met to optimize these studies.
Development of the collateral chemistry and instrumentation required to carry
out single molecule studies is essential for progress. New tools and strategies, as well as refinement of current methods, are also needed. Single
molecule methods are likely to lead to significant advances in understanding molecular movement, dynamics, and function.
... There is an urgent need to bring chemists into this field ... Traditionally, technical advances that have
led to radical changes in the spectroscopic methods have come from physicists
supported by agencies other than the NIH. For this field to move forward, it is
essential to attract physicists into biology laboratories. In addition to
collaborations with physicists, the NIH should focus on new, and creative ways
to train physicists to think about single molecule experiments NIGMS,
NICDC, NHGRI, Single Molecule Detection and Manipulation, Feb. 12, 2001
Single molecule experiments
experiment is an experiment that
investigates the properties of individual molecules.
Single-molecule studies may be contrasted with measurements on an ensemble
or bulk collection of molecules, where the individual behavior of
molecules cannot be distinguished, and only average characteristics
can be measured. Since many measurement techniques in biology, chemistry
and physics are not sensitive enough to observe single molecules,
single-molecule fluorescence techniques
(that have emerged since the 90s for probing various processes on the
level of individual molecules) caused a lot of excitement, since these
supplied many new details on the measured processes that were not
accessible in the past. Indeed, since the 90s, many techniques for probing
individual molecules have been developed.
Single-molecule techniques impacted optics, electronics, biology, and
chemistry. In the biological sciences, the study of proteins and other
complex biological machinery was limited to ensemble experiments that
nearly made impossible the direct observation of their kinetics. For
example, it was only after single molecule fluorescence microscopy was
used to study kinesin-myosin pairs in muscle tissue that direct
observation of the walking mechanisms were understood. These experiments,
however, have for the most part been limited to in vitro studies, as
useful techniques for live cell imaging have yet to be fully realized. The
promise of single molecule in vivo imaging, however,
brings with it an enormous potential to directly observe bio-molecules in
native processes. These techniques are often targeted for studies
involving low-copy proteins, many of which are still being discovered.
These techniques have also been extended to study areas of chemistry,
including the mapping of heterogeneous surfaces.
Wikipedia accessed 2018 Sept 3
Single molecule See
Cell & Tissue Technologies
single-pair FRET spFRET: Labels,
Signaling & detection
Ever lower quantities are becoming detectable.
Single molecule and even single atom detection have been reported. Related
terms: zeptomole, yoctomole
yoctomole: 10 -24 mole. One septillionth.
10 –21 mole. One-sextillionth.
Compare with prefixes for the largest number: Computers
& computing (under peta), exa, zetta, yotta
Bruner, Bob Metric prefixes from yotta to yocto http://bbruner.org/metric.htm
Metric System Prefixes https://www.simetric.co.uk/siprefix.htm
Wikipedia, Unit Prefixes https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_prefix
to look for other unfamiliar terms
IUPAC definitions are reprinted with the permission of
the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.