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Nanoscience & miniaturization glossary & taxonomy

Evolving terminology for emerging technologies

 Suggestions? Comments? Questions?
Mary Chitty MSLS
mchitty@healthtech.com
Last revised January 09, 2020



Technologies term index   Related glossaries include Technologies: Biomaterials, Bioengineering & Medical devices  Labels, signaling & detection glossary   Molecular Imaging   Microarrays & protein chips   Microscopy   Ultrasensitivity    

BioMEMS Biological MicroElectro Mechanical Systems:
Google = about 7,890 Aug. 8, 2002; about 14,400 Jan. 12, 2004, 91,100 Dec 26, 2007 Broader term: MEMs; Narrower term: NEMS

bionanotechnology:  See nanobiotechnology    
Google = about 489 July 17, 2002; about 4,970 Jan. 12, 2004, about 67,600 Dec. 26, 2007  

bottom-up nanotechnology: Mostly chemists attempting to create structure by connecting molecules. [Noah Robischon "Nanotechnology and the battle to build smaller" Discovery Channel 1998]   
Google = about 71 Aug. 8, 2002; about 10,100 June 23, 2004  Related term: quantum dots Compare top-down nanotechnology.

cantilever: A lever beam  held down at one end, with some support near the middle and which  supports a load on the other end. Diving boards and drawbridges are cantilevers. 
Google = about  135,000 Aug. 8, 2002; about 291, 000 June 23, 2004

carbon nanofoam: A new form of carbon: a spongy solid that is extremely lightweight and, unusually, attracted to magnets... John Giapintzakis of the University of Crete has used an electron microscope to study the structure of the nanofoam. He says it is the fifth form of carbon known after graphite, diamond and two recently discovered types: hollow spheres, known as buckminsterfullerenes or buckyballs, and nanotubes. Jim Giles, Scientists create fifth form of carbon, Nature 23 Mar. 2004

carbon nanotubes: Carbon nanotube tips have several advantages [as atomic force microscopy tips] , including high aspect ratio for imaging deep and narrow crevices, low tip- sample adhesion for gentle imaging, the ability to elastically buckle rather than break when large forces are applied, and the potential to achieve resolutions in the range of 1.0 nm or less. In addition, carbon nanotubes have well defined molecular structures so that it is possible to control their synthesis to make every tip with an identical structure and resolution. Carbon nanotubes can be selectively modified at their ends with organic or biological molecules to allow functional sensitive imaging
Google = about 35,500 Aug. 8, 2002; about 122,000 June 23, 2004  Broader terms: fullerenes, nanotubes

dendrimer: A polymer having a regular branched structure; If suitably functionalized  may be used as a soluble support, in which case the desired, dendrimer- supported, material may be isolated by size- exclusion chromatography. Dendrimers may also be attached to a polymer and used as a solid support, with significantly increased loading over the initial resin. IUPAC COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY

Dendrimers consist of interconnected monomeric subunits that hybridize to form a tree- like structure. Each monomer is a double- stranded DNA molecule where the two strands share a region of sequence complementarity in the middle of molecule.  Also known as "cascade molecules"   Google = about  5,540 Aug. 8, 2002; about 17,800 June 23, 2004  Related terms: Cell biology dendritic cells   glycodendrimers: Glycosciences glossary

femtoengineering:  Will involve engineering using mechanisms within a quark.  Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence by Ray Kurzweil, Penguin paperback http://www.penguinputnam.com/static/packages/us/kurzweil/excerpts/timeline/tlnotes.htm  Broader terms: microengineering, nanoengineering, picoengineering  femtomole: Ultrasensitivity glossary 
Google = about 1,540  Aug. 8, 2002; about 4,290 June 23, 2004

MEMS MicroElectro Mechanical Systems: Stood originally for Micro-ElectroMechanical System -- microscopic mechanical elements, fabricated on silicon chips by techniques similar to those used in integrated circuit manufacture, for use as sensors, actuators, and other devices. Today almost any miniaturized device (based on Si technology or traditional precision engineering, chemical or mechanical) is referred to as a MEMS device.  http://www.memsnet.org/glossary/   Related terms: micromachining. Narrower terms BioMEMS, NEMS   Google = about  19,000 Aug. 8, 2002

metal nanoshells: A new type of nanoparticle composed of a semiconductor or dielectric core coated with an ultrathin conductive layer.. By adjusting the relative core and shell thicknesses, metal nanoshells can be fabricated that will absorb or scatter light at any wavelength across the entire visible and infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. [Halas Nanoengineering Group, Rice Univ. US, 2000] http://www.ece.rice.edu/%7Ehalas/research.html  Broader terms: nanoparticle, nanoshells
Google = about 171 Aug. 8, 2002, about 3,400 Dec. 26 2007 

microbubbles: Very small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content, etc. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy. MeSH 2004

microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter. MeSH 2003  Related term: micro- TAS 
Google = about 5,050 Aug. 8, 2002; about 13,700 June 23, 2004 

MicroElectro Mechanical Systems: See MEMS.

microelectronics: Wikipedia  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microelectronics    Narrower terms: MEMS, nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, SED Single Electron Devices. Related terms: molecular electronics, semiconductors, supramolecular electronics
Google = about  423,000 Aug. 8, 2002; about 978,000 June 23, 2004, about 5,650,000 Dec 26, 2007 

microengineering: Related terms
include MEMS, microfabrication, microfluidics, micromachining, NEMS, nanoengineering 
Google = about 10,100 Aug. 8, 2002; about 240,000 June 23, 2004, about 762,000 Dec 26, 2007

microfabrication: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microfabrication  Related terms: microelectronics, nanofabrication; Assays, labels, signaling & detection single molecule detection 
Microfabrication Glossary
  MEMsNet, about 350 terms http://www.memsnet.org/glossary/ 

Google = about  42,100 Aug. 8, 2002; about 67,300 June 23, 2004, about 301,000 Dec 26k 2007 

microfiltration: Pressure-driven membrane-based separation process in which particles and dissolved macromolecules larger than 0.1 Ám are rejected. IUPAC Gold Book https://goldbook.iupac.org/html/M/MT06887.html

microfluidics: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microfluidics 

The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES  MeSH 2004

Enables the fabrication of networks of channels, chambers, and valves for the flow of liquids as minute as one picoliter. These systems have no moving parts and require little assembly. [Coventor "About Coventor" 2002] http://www.coventor.com/about/   Narrower term: nanofluidics; Related term: Microarrays categories lab- on -a- chip 
Google = about  13,500 Aug. 8, 2002; about 51,300 June 23, 2004, about 418,000 Dec 26, 2007

microgel:  Particle of gel of any shape with an equivalent diameter of approximately  to . Note: The definition proposed here is recommended for its precision and because it distinguishes between a microgel and a nanogel.  IUPAC Gold Book https://goldbook.iupac.org/html/M/M03901.html

microinjection: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microinjection 

The insertion of a substance into a cell through a microelectrode. Typical applications include the injection of drugs, histochemical markers (such as horseradish peroxidase or lucifer yellow) and RNA or DNA in molecular biological studies. To extrude the substances through the very fine electrode tips, either hydrostatic pressure (pressure injection) or electric currents (ionophoresis) is employed. OMD

A technique for introducing a solution of DNA, protein, or other soluble material into a cell using a fine microcapillary pipet. Life Sciences Dictionary
Google = about 18,700 Aug. 8, 2002; about 96,300 June 23, 2004

micromachines:  Wikipedia Micromachinery,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micromachines Related terms: Labels, signaling & detection glossary actuators, sensors, transducers
Google = about 25,900 Aug. 8, 2002; about 128,000 June 23, 2004; about 157,000 May 2, 2005, 490,000 Dec 26, 2007 

micromachining: Techniques for fabricating MEMS. Narrower terms: bulk micromachining http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulk_micromachining  surface micromaching http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_micromachining  Broader term: microengineering 
 Google = about 28,200 Aug. 8, 2002; about 81,000 June 23, 2004; about 365,000 Dec 26, 2007

Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems: A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps. MeSH Year introduced: 2009

micron: 10 -6     Symbol is u.

microparticles:  Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microparticle

Can be used for drug delivery Narrower term: nanoparticles micro-PET: Molecular Imaging glossary
Google = about  8,980 Aug. 8, 2002; about 33,000 June 23, 2004, about 386,000 Dec 26, 2007

microspheres: Drug delivery

microstructures: The last decade has seen rapid developments in the fabrication, characterization and conceptual understanding of synthetic microstructures in many different material systems including silicon, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, metals, ceramics and organics. The objective of this journal [Superlattices and Microstructures] is to provide a common interdisciplinary platform for the publication of the latest research results on all such "nanostructures" with dimensions in the range of 1 - 100 nm; the unifying theme here being the dimensions of these artificial structures rather than the material system in which they are fabricated. [Superlattices & Microstructures, Elsevier http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/0749-6036 
Google = about  71,900 Aug. 8, 2002; about 92,400 Aug. 26, 2003

microsystem: A microscale machine that can sense information from the environment and act accordingly. Outside the U.S., it can also refer to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). [smalltimes glossary, 2002] http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=3631  Related term: wireless microsystems
Google = about 2,200,000 Aug. 9, 2002; about 3,050,000 Aug. 26, 2003 

microTas, micro Total Analysis Systems, uTAS: Although initial research dates back to the early 1970’s, the field of micro- TAS formally started in 1990, when Manz et al described the possibility of creating microsystems that would take care of many or all the traditional analytical steps involved in a biochemical analysis (sample introduction, handling, extraction, purification, concentration, filtration, analysis, detection) .... Micro- TAS offer many advantages over traditional analysis systems. Low power consumption and small reaction volumes, faster analysis, ultrasensitive detection, and minimal human intervention are key parameters in the development of micro- TAS. Most biochemical reactions take place in liquid environments. Hence, the development of MicroTAS is intrinsically linked to the design of liquid handling micro- devices. [Biomedical Applications Group (GAB) Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (CNM- IMB) Bellaterra, Spain, 2000]    Related term: microchemistry  Broader term: Assays & screening glossary analysis - molecular
Google = microTAS about 401;  "microTotal Analysis systems" about 953  Aug. 8, 2002

miniaturization: Desirable for many technologies for overall cost reduction (including reduction in the amount of reagents and analytes). Important to remember that building space is often the least available and most expensive component of an overall laboratory budget. 
Google = about  52,800 Aug. 8, 2002; about 120,000 June 23, 2004

molecular electronics: Molecular electronics offers the tantalizing prospect of eventually building circuits with critical dimensions of a few nanometers. Some basic devices utilizing molecules have been demonstrated, including tunnel junctions with negative differential resistance, rectifiers and electrically configurable switches that have been used in simple electronic memory and logic circuits. A major challenge that remains is to show that such devices can be fabricated economically using a process that will scale to circuits with large numbers of elements while maintaining their desired electronic properties. Yong Chen et. al, Nanoscale molecular-switch devices fabricated by imprint lithography, Applied Physics Letters, (82: 10): 1610- 1612 March 10, 2003 , Hewlett Packard Labs Research  http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/papers/2003/molecular_switch.html   Related terms: Ultrasensitivity glossary single molecule
Molecular electronics, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_electronics
Google = about 15,600 Aug. 8, 2002; about 63,500 June 23, 2004, about 402,000 Dec. 15, 2005, about 326,000 Dec 26, 2007

molecular nanotechnology: See molecular nanoscience, nanotechnology.  Google = about 7,300 Aug. 8, 2002; about 18,600 June 23, 2004, about 112, 000 Dec 26, 2007

molecular robotics: Ralph Merkle, A New Family of Six Degree of Freedom Positional Devices, Zyvex, 1994  http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/6dof.html

nano: 10 -9  Ultrasensitivity glossary
nanoarray:
Microarrays categories  Google = about  211 Aug. 8, 2002; about 755 June 23, 2004
nanobarcodes: Labels, signaling & detection glossary Google = about  148 Aug. 8, 2002; about 364 June 23, 2004

nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology.[1] Given that the subject is one that has only emerged very recently, bionanotechnology and nanobiotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies.  This discipline helps to indicate the merger of biological research with various fields of nanotechnology. Concepts that are enhanced through nanobiology include: nanodevices (such as biological machines), nanoparticles, and nanoscale phenomena that occurs within the discipline of nanotechnology. This technical approach to biology allows scientists to imagine and create systems that can be used for biological research. Biologically inspired nanotechnology uses biological systems as the inspirations for technologies not yet created.[2]  Nano-biotechnology is often used to describe the overlapping multidisciplinary activities associated with biosensors, particularly where photonics, chemistry, biology, biophysics, nano-medicine, and engineering converge. Measurement in biology using wave guide techniques, such as dual polarization interferometry, are another example.  Wikipedia accessed 2018 Sept 4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanobiotechnology

nanochemistry: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanochemistry 

The scope of this IUPAC project (2007-040-2-200), entitled Analysis of the Usage of Nanoscience and Technology in Chemistry, was to study the usage of nano-related terminology in chemistry and to analyze its penetration among the various chemical disciplines. Thus, this effort was mainly dedicated to mapping the nano-dominated publication domains by a detailed analysis of peer-reviewed papers, patents, and books. A global analysis of nano- in chemistry terminology should serve as a first step in delivering a guideline for IUPAC to propose some recommendations and suggested terminology in the future. This short summary is extracted from a longer report, available at iupac.org/project/2007-040-2-200, which helps clarify how the emergence of nanotechnology impacts the various fields of chemistry. ... In summary, the efforts made in this project confirm that nanotechnology crosses many fields, and has had both a general and a discipline-specific impact on the development of chemistry-related terminology and publication. The citation distribution, change of key words, and analysis of nano-prefix terms and other co-word analysis suggests that terminology in nanotechnology has reached a relatively mature level at which convergence is an appropriate step. https://www.iupac.org/publications/ci/2012/3405/pp1_2007-040-2-200.html

nanocomposites: The definition of nano-composite material has broadened significantly to encompass a large variety of systems such as one-dimensional, two-dimensional, three-dimensional and amorphous materials, made of distinctly dissimilar components and mixed at the nanometer scale.
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanocomposite 

nanocomputer: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanocomputer 

nanocrystals: A nanocrystal typically has a diameter of between 1 and 10 nm and may contain as few as a hundred or as many as tens of thousands of atoms. Many fundamental properties of nanocrystals depend strongly on their size in smooth and predictable ways. Examples include the external field required to switch a magnetized particle of great importance in magnetotactic bacteria and in hard disk drives and the color of light emission from a semiconductor used for the fluorescent labeling of cells and in lasers. This facile tuning of properties by size variation is one reason why nanocrystals are widely viewed as promising components for new artificial optical and electrical materials. "Enhanced: Naturally Aligned Nanocrystals" A. P. Alivisatos Science 289 (5480): 736-7 Aug. 4, 2000 Related term: quantum dots
Google = about 13,700 Aug. 8, 2002; about 94,600 June 23, 2004; about 1,120,000 Nov 27, 2006 

nanoengineering:
We use chemistry to construct nanostructures and their composites, then focus our attention on the electronic, optical, and transport properties of these nanostructures and the macroscopic films and materials that can be constructed from them. This research lies at the common frontier of chemistry, condensed matter physics, optics, and bioengineering. Halas Nanoengineering Group, Rice Univ. US, 2000 http://www.ece.rice.edu/%7Ehalas/research.html   Narrower terms: femtoengineering, picoengineering; Related terms: microengineering, nanoscience, self-assembly.
Google = about 2,340 Aug. 8, 2002; about 10,700 June 23, 2004, about 67,800 Dec 26, 2007

nanofabrication: Nanofabrication methods can be divided into two categories: top- down methods, which carve out or add aggregates of molecules to a surface, and bottom- up methods, which assemble atoms or molecules into nanostructures. George M. Whitesides and J. Christopher Love "The art of building small" Scientific American 285 (3): 39- 47, Sept. 2001

Fabrication on the nanotechnology scale. Broader term: microfabrication
Google = about  15,100 Aug. 8, 2002; about 47,900 June 23, 2004; about 761,000 Nov 27, 2006, about 284,000 

nanofiltration:  Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanofiltration
Google = about 306,000 Nov 27, 2006

nanoimprinting: Sometimes called soft lithography. A technique that is very simple in concept, and totally analogous to traditional mould- or form-based printing technology, but that uses moulds (masters) with nanoscale features. As with the printing press, the potential for mass production is clear. There are two forms of nanoimprinting, one that uses pressure to make indentations in the form of the mould on a surface, the other, more akin to the printing press, that relies on the application of "ink" applied to the mould to stamp a pattern on a surface. Other techniques such as etching may then follow Nanotechnology Glossary http://www.nanotech-now.com/nanotechnology-glossary-M-O.htm 
Google = about  191 Aug. 8, 2002; about 13,800 June 23, 2004

nanomaterials: Materials at the nanometer scale. 
Narrower terms: nanoclusters, nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanowires, quantum dots. Broader term: micromaterials; Related terms: Bioengineering & biomaterials glossary

nanomedicine:  Molecular Medicine

nanometals: Wikibooks https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Nanotechnology/Nanometals

nanomotors: A University of Florida chemistry professor has made a "nanomotor" from a single DNA molecule. The motor, so small that hundreds of thousands could fit on the head of a pin, curls up and extends like an inchworm, said Weihong Tan, the principal investigator and lead author of an article about the motor in the April edition of the journal Nano Letters [Daily University Science News, May 16, 2002] http://unisci.com/stories/20022/0516021.htm  Google = about  405 Aug. 8, 2002; about 4,120 June 23, 2004, about 10,300 Dec 26, 2007

nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging. MesH  Year introduced: 2007

nanophotonics:  Molecular imaging  
Google = about 8,440 June 23, 2004, about 108,000 Dec 26, 2007

nanophysics: The nanoscale physics group uses various experimental techniques to examine the physical properties of objects in the nanoscale size range, that is, a little bit larger than the size of atoms. Some interesting physical properties at this range include conductivity of small numbers of atoms and molecules, forces arising between objects on this scale, and the transition between the quantum nature of a few atoms and a large number of atoms. Nanoscale Physics, Purdue Univ., 2000 http://www.physics.purdue.edu/nanophys/  Related term: quantum physics
Google = about 2,050 Aug. 8, 2002; about 6,940 June 23, 2004; about 468,000 Oct 22, 2007  

nanopore:  a pore of nanometer size. It may, for example, be created by a pore-forming protein or as a hole in synthetic materials such as silicon or graphene. When a nanopore is present in an electrically insulating membrane, it can be used as a single-molecule detector.   Wikipedia accessed 2018 Oct 18   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanopore  Related term: Sequencing glossary: nanopore sequencing
Google = about 1,820 Aug. 8, 2002; about 5,670 June 23, 2004  :

nanopositioning:  The means of controlling motion on the nanometre scale - is now a key enabling technology in high- tech fields such as semiconductor test and measurement, photonics alignment, scanning microscopy and microlithography. Stefan Vorndran, Nanopositioning: Fighting the Myths, Opto and Laser Europe, Nov. 2004 http://optics.org/articles/ole/9/11/3/1 
Google = about 14,400 Mar. 1, 2005

nanoscience: The study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale. Draft definitions, Royal Society, Royal Academy of Engineering  Nanotechnology and Nanoscience, 2003 http://www.nanotec.org.uk/draftdefinition.htm  Narrower terms: nanobiology, nanobiotechnology, nanochemistry, nanoengineering, nanophysics, nanotechnology, quantum physics. Related term: nanotechnology
Google = about 23,000 Aug. 8, 2002; about 101,000 Jan. 12, 2004; about 133,000 June 23, 2004

nanoshells:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanoshell
Related terms: metal nanoshells Many nanoshells are gold or silver.  There are also silica or carbon nanoshells, other types? Is there a hierarchy of nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanospheres ?  Narrower term: nanoprism
Google = about 463 Aug. 8, 2002; about 3,760 June 23, 2004  

nanospheres: The simplest type of nanoparticle with only one adjustable geometrical parameter (radius) which exhibits resonant responses under optical excitation. From: Photodetectors 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/nanosphere   See also Microarrays glossary under microspheres
Google = about 2,010 Aug. 8, 2002; about 8,120 June 23, 2004 

nanostructures: Nanometer sized objects. MeSH 2005

Nanostructures may be considered as small, familiar, or large, depending on the view point of the disciplines concerned. To chemists, nanostructures are molecular assemblies of atoms numbering from 103 to 109 and of molecular weights of 104 to 1010 Daltons. Thus, they are chemically large supramolecules. To molecular biologists, nanostructures have the size of familiar objects from proteins to viruses and cellular organelles. But to material scientists and electrical engineers, nanostructures are the current limit of microfabrication and thus are rather small. Nanostructures are complex systems which evidently lie at the interface between solid- state physics, supramolecular chemistry, and molecular biology (Mainzer et al. 1997) Klaus Mainzer, Symmetry and Complexity -- Fundamental Concepts of Research in Chemistry, HYLE International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry, Vol. 3 (1997), pp. 29-49 http://www.hyle.org/journal/issues/3/mainzer.htm   Narrower terms: dendrimers, fullerenes, nanoclusters, nanotubes, quantum dots
Google = about 63,800  Aug. 8, 2002; about 214,000 June 23, 2004; about 455,000 March 22, 2005  

nanotechnology: manipulation of matter on an atomicmolecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology[1][2] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size.  Wikipedia accessed 2018 Sept 4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotechnology

The production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometre scale. Draft definitions, Royal Society, Royal Academy of Engineering  Nanotechnology and Nanoscience, 2003 http://www.nanotec.org.uk/draftdefinition.htm 

The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller. MeSH 2002

Although research in this field dates back to Richard P. Feynman's classic talk in 1959, the term nanotechnology was first coined by K. Eric Drexler in 1986 in the book Engines of Creation. In the popular press, the term nanotechnology is sometimes used to refer to any sub- micron process, including lithography. Because of this, many scientists are beginning to use the term molecular nanotechnology when talking about true nanotechnology at the molecular level. ZD Webopedia  Related terms:  Interagency Working Group on Nanoscience, Engineering and Technology IWGN, molecular manufacturing, nanoscience
Narrower terms: bionanotechnology, nanobiotechnology
Google = about 411,000 Aug. 8, 2002; about 1,570,000 June 23, 2004, about 12, 000,000 Dec 26, 2007 

nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon ( CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.  MeSH 2004

Narrower terms: carbon nanotubes, peptide nanotubes.  Many nanotubes are carbon, but some are based on other elements.   Broader term: fullerene
Nanotube Site
http://www.pa.msu.edu/cmp/csc/nanotube.html
Google = about  76,600 Aug. 8, 2002; about 332,000 June 23, 2004

National Nanotechnology Initiative: US federal government agencies participating include the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the National Institute of Health, NASA, and NIST. National Nanotechnology Initiative website http://www.nano.gov/ 

NEMS Nano ElectroMechanical Systems: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanoelectromechanical_systems 
Google nanoelectromechanical = about 2,980 Jan. 12, 2004, about 38,000 Dec 26, 2007 

OEIS OptoElectronic Integrated Systems: http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e84-c_12_1778&category=C&year=2001&lang=&abst=
Google = "OptoElectronic Integrated Systems" about 28 Aug. 8, 2002; about 59 June 23, 2004

peptide nanotubes: NANOTUBES formed from cyclic peptides ( PEPTIDES, CYCLIC). Alternating D and L linkages create planar rings that self assemble by stacking into nanotubes. They can form pores through CELL MEMBRANE causing damage. MeSH 2004

picoengineering: Involves engineering at the level of subatomic particles (e.g., electrons).  Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence by Ray Kurzweil, Penguin paperback http://www.penguinputnam.com/static/packages/us/kurzweil/excerpts/timeline/tlnotes.htm  Broader terms: microengineering, nanoengineering; Narrower term: femtoengineering

piconewtons:   https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/piconewton  Related/broader?  term: nanonewtons
Google = about 955 June 23, 2004 

positional assemblyRalph Merkle, Molecular Manufacturing, Adding Positional Control to Chemical Synthesis, Zyvex, 1993http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/CDAarticle.html

quantum dots: Nanometer sized fragments (the dots) of semiconductor crystalline material which emits PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They are brighter and more persistent than organic chemical INDICATORS. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. Do not confuse with microscopic fluorescent bar codes which are micrometer sized. MeSH 2004

An important strategy for nonisotopic labeling of single molecules is the use of highly luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals, or 'quantum dots,' that can be covalently linked to biological molecules. This class of detectors, which range in size from 1- 5 nm, have been exploited for biological labeling by a number of laboratories, particularly those of Shimon Weiss, Paul Alivisatos and Shuming Nie (4, 5). Quantum dots offer several advantages over organic dyes, including increased brightness, stability against photobleaching, a broad continuous excitation spectrum, and a narrow, tunable, symmetric emission spectrum. Because quantum dots are nontoxic and can be made to dissolve in water, efforts are underway to explore their use in labeling single molecules in living cells.  NIGMS  Single Molecule Detection and Manipulation Workshop" Single Molecule Fluorescence of Biomolecules and Complexes Protein Folding April 17- 18, 2000 http://www.nigms.nih.gov/news/reports/single_molecules.html#examples  Broader term: nanoparticles
Google = about  37,800 Aug. 8, 2002; about 151,000 June 23, 2004

quantum nanoscience: the research area and the branch of nanotechnology and physics that uses methods of quantum mechanics to the design of new types of nanodevices and nanoscale materials, where functionality and structure of quantum nanodevices are described through quantum phenomena and principles such as discretisation, superposition and entanglement. Wikipedia accessed 2018 Feb 16 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_nanoscience

rapid prototyper:   Related terms: self-replication, universal constructor
Google = about 6,780 July 11, 2005 

self-replication: Self replication is an effective route to truly low cost manufacturing. Our intuitions about self replicating systems, learned from the biological systems that surround us, are likely to seriously mislead us about the properties and characteristics of artificial self replicating systems designed for manufacturing purposes. Artificial systems able to make a wide range of non- biological products (like diamond) under programmatic control are likely to be more brittle and less adaptable in their response to changes in their environment than biological systems. At the same time, they should be simpler and easier to design. The complexity of such systems need not be excessive by present engineering standards. [Ralph Merkle, Self replication and nanotechnology, Zyvex, US, 2000 ] http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRep.html

Single Electron Devices SED:  https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0a9a/ab3b3346e4210bdaf9ac6a51bde96ff9e7c3.pdf  Broader terms: microdevices, microelectronics, nanodevices.
Google = about  1,810 Aug. 8, 2002; about 4,100 June 23, 2004

universal constructor:  Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Constructor   Related term: rapid prototyper

uTAS: See microTAS

Nanoscience resources
Drexler, K. Eric, Glossary, Nanosystems  http://e-drexler.com/d/06/00/Nanosystems/glossary/glossary_a.html
IBM Research: Nanotechnology:
https://www.ibm.com/blogs/research/category/nanotechnology/
Nanotech Now Glossary, 2017 http://www.nanotech-now.com/nanotechnology-glossary-A-C.htm

How to look for other unfamiliar  terms

IUPAC definitions are reprinted with the permission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

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