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Genomics glossary & taxonomy
Evolving terminologies for emerging technologies
Comments? Revisions? Questions?
 Mary Chitty, MSLS
Last revised January 09, 2020

Basic genetics & genomics starts with a brief explanation of differences between genetics and genomics Other related glossaries include Cancer genomics   Genomic categories   Molecular diagnostics, Genetic & genomic testing      Pharmacogenomics   Applications: Ultimately Drug discovery & Development      Molecular diagnostics & genetic testing  and  Molecular Medicine are the end applications of both genomic and proteomic technologies, data and understanding  Informatics  Bioinformatics     Genomic Informatics   Technologies  Genomic Technologies     Microarrays      PCR and Gene Amplification      Sequencing
Biology  Functional Genomics     Genomics categories     Maps     SNPs & genetic variations  ultimately, Proteins     Protein structures and    Proteomics  are all important  

biocomplexity: is concerned with the complex behavioral, biological, social, chemical, and physical interactions of living organisms with their environment. Both the term and the research field are relatively new and encompass other domains like biodiversity, ecology etc.. The aim of biocomplexity research is to discover, access, interpret, integrate and analyze complex ecological data.  Wikipedia   Broader terms: complex, complexity

completed genomes: This depends to an extent on how you define "complete". Portions of the human genome are unsequenceable with today's technology.   Related term: Human Genome Project HGP- completion Sequences, DNA & beyond finished sequence

Completed genomes links: Completed Genomes European Bioinformatics Institute, UK 
Entrez  Genome, Entrez, NCBI, US 

complex phenotypes: Those that exhibit familial clustering, which may mean that there is some genetic component, but that do not occur in Mendelian proportions in pedigrees. Complex phenotypes may be continuous in distribution, like height or blood pressure, or they may be dichotomous, like affected and not affected. The complexity arises from the fact one cannot accurately predict the expression of the phenotype from knowledge of the individual effects of individual factors considered alone, no matter how well understood each separate component may be. Genetic Architecture, Biological Variation and Complex Phenotypes, PA-02-110, May 29, 2002- June 5, 2005

complex trait: Has a genetic component that is not strictly Mendelian (dominant, recessive, or sex linked) and may involve the interaction of two or more genes to produce a phenotype, or may involve gene environment interactions." [NHLBI]Related term: genetic architecture 

complexity:: Currently there are more than 30 different mathematical descriptions of complexity. However we have yet to understand the mathematical dependency relating the number of genes with organism complexity. [J. Craig Venter et. al. "The sequence of the Human Genome" Science 291 (5507): 1347, Feb. 16, 2001] 

Complexity Science comprises a toolset that examines large scale behaviors of complex systems by looking at how individual components of those systems interact with each other and their environment. From these interactions novel behaviors emerge. Stuart Kauffman

An ill- defined term that means many things to many people. Complex things are neither random nor regular, but hover somewhere in between. Intuitively, complexity is a measure of  how interesting something is. Other types of complexity may be well defined. Gary William Flake, Computational Beauty of Nature: Computer Explorations of Fractals, Chaos, Complex Systems, and Adaptation, MIT Press, 1998
Related term: complex    Narrower terms: biocomplexity, biological complexity

EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory
: Main laboratory is in Heidelberg, Germany, with outstations in Hamburg, Grenoble, France (access to high powered instruments for structure studies) and Hinxton, UK (bioinformatics). Supported by 14 European countries and Israel, shares data daily with DDBJ and GenBank.

genetic architecture: Refers to the full range of genetic effects on a trait; however, when studying variation on such a large [genomic] scale, it is especially important to consider the context or environments in which genetic variation arises, is selected, and is maintained. Genetic architecture is less a fixed property of the phenotype than a characteristic of a phenotype in a particular population. Genetic architecture is a moving target that changes according to gene and genotype frequencies, distributions of environmental factors, and such biological properties as age and sex. Genetic Architecture, Biological Variation and Complex Phenotypes, PA-02-110, May 29, 2002- June 5, 2005

genome: The complete set of chromosomal and extrachromosomal genes of an organism, a cell, an organelle or a virus; the complete DNA component of an organism. [IUPAC Biotech]

The fundamental concepts of genome, genotype and phenotype are not defined in a satisfactory manner within the biological literature. Not only are there inconsistencies in usage between various authors, but even individual authors do not use these concepts in a consistent manner within their own writings. We have found at least five different notions of genome, seven of genotype, and five of phenotype current in the literature. Our goal is to clarify this situation by (a) defining clearly and precisely the notions of genetic complement, genome, genotype, phenetic complement, and phenotype; (b) examining that of phenome; and (c) analysing the logical structure of this family of concepts. [M. Mahner, M. Kary "What exactly are genomes, genotypes and phenotypes? And what about phenomes?" Journal of  Theoretical Biology 186 (1): 55- 63, May 1997]

All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria. [NHGRI] Size expressed by the number of base pairs. [DOE].

First used by H. Winkler in 1920, was created by elision of the words GENes and chromosOMEs, and that is what the term signifies: the complete set of chromosomes and their genes. V McKusick "Genomics: Structural and Functional studies of genomes" Genomics 45:244-249 Oct. 15 1997  Narrower terms: Gene Definitions chromosomal genome, mitochondrial genome, nuclear genome
Personal Genome Project 

genome components: The parts of a GENOME sequence that carry out the different functions of genomes. MeSH, 2003 

genome properties: An emerging area of research focuses on how properties of genomes arise in evolutionary history. Such research has important consequences for understanding genome organization and for interpreting data on genetic and phenotypic variation. Such research could include the evolution of haplotypes, selection for genetic interactions, and the evolution of recombination and methylation patterns. Genetic Architecture, Biological Variation and Complex Phenotypes, PA-02-110, May 29, 2002- June 5, 2005

genomic DNA: DNA

genomic instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.  MeSH, 2004

genomic research: The definition of genomics is not precise. Tom Roderick coined the term, and Victor McKusick and Frank Ruddle used it to launch Genomics the journal in 1987. We follow their definition here, but leave interpretation to your discretion. We intend to include research that addresses all or a substantial portion of an organism’s genome (including a chromosome or chromosome segment, but not a localized gene or gene family). This definition includes positional cloning if it starts from genome- wide (or chromosome- specific) marker scans. We include physical mapping and sequencing of all or a large part of a genome or chromosome. We also include array technologies that monitor expression of very large numbers of genes (hundreds or thousands), and informatic tools primarily intended to interpret DNA sequence or map information on a genomic or chromosomal scale. Software for melding high- throughput sequencing information into contigs would be included, for example, but not software for pedigree construction alone, or translation to protein sequence or simple homology comparison. We include techniques for high- throughput sequencing or genome- scale mapping, but not research directed at one or a few alleles (e.g., a single- locus diagnostic test would be excluded, even if based on DNA sequencing). We acknowledge broad gray zones, and accept therefore that genomics research is what you say it is. Robert Cooke- Deegan et. al., World Survey of Funding for Genomics Research: Final Report to the Global Forum for Health Research and the World Health Organization,  September 2000 

genomics:  The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms. MeSH, 2001

Genomics is a forum for describing the development of genome-scale technologies and their application to all areas of biological investigation. Topics within the scope of Genomics include, but are not limited to:
 Genomics including genome projects, genome sequencing, and genomic technologies and novel strategies.
 Functional genomics including transcriptional profiling, mRNA analysis, microRNA analysis, and analysis of noncoding and other RNAs using established and newly-emerging technologies (such as digital gene expression).
 Evolutionary and comparative genomics, including phylogenomics
 Genomic technology and methodology development, with a focus on new and exciting applications with potential for significant impact in the field and emerging technologies
 Computational biology, bioinformatics and biostatistics, including integrative methods, network biology, and the development of novel tools and techniques
 Modern genetics on a genomic scale, including complex gene studies, population genomics, association studies, structural variation, and gene-environment interactions
 Epigenomics, including DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin structure, imprinting, and chromatin remodeling
 Genomic regulatory analysis, including DNA elements, locus control regions, insulators, enhancers, silencers, and mechanisms of gene regulation
• Genomic approaches to understanding the mechanism of disease pathogenesis and its relationship to genetic factors, including meta-genomic and the mode and tempo of gene and genome sequence evolution.
 Medical Genomics, Personal Genomics, and other applications to human health
• Application of Genomic techniques in model organisms that may be of interest to a wide audience.  About this journal, Genomics, Elsevier

The border between genomics and the rest of molecular biology has been stretched thin and has become porous. The term remains useful, but interpreting findings from this and other surveys needs to take definition creep and the changing meaning of genomics in capital markets into account.  . [Robert Cooke- Deegan et. al., World Survey of Funding for Genomics Research: Final Report to the Global Forum for Health Research and the World Health Organization,  September 2000]

Generation of information about living things by systematic approaches that can be performed on an industrial scale. [Roger Brent "Genomic biology" Cell 100: 169-183 Jan 2, 2000]  

Brief Guide to Genomics, NHGRI 2019

Basic genetics & genomics  (tries to) answer the question of what the difference between genetics and genomics is.

Coined by Thomas H. Roderick [of the Jackson Laboratory, Maine, US] in 1986 in Bethesda, MD during a discussion of a name for a planned new journal (Genomics) that was to include sequencing data, discovery of new genes, gene mapping, and new genetic technologies. According to Roderick, the term genomics "also had the comparative aspect of genomes of various species, their evolution, and how they related to each other. Although we didn’t come up with the term ‘functional genomics’ we thought of the genome as a functioning whole beyond just single genes of sequences spread around a chromosome." B Kuska "Beer, Bethesda, and Biology" JNCI 90(2): 93 Jan 21, 1998

Although I haven't found any references to "genomics" prior to 1987, "genomic" is easily found in Medline from 1966 on, and probably could be located in journals earlier than that.

Narrower terms include: Genomics categories: agricultural genomics, applied genomics,  combinatorial, environmental, food,  forward genetics, forward genomics, genome transplantation, genomics, high- throughput, industrial, intergenomics,  metagenome, metagenomics,  microbial genome,  paleogenomics, phage, quantitative, subtractive genomics; Clinical genomics & Molecular Medicine behavioral genomics,  cancer genomics, clinical genomics, oncogenomics, predictive genomics; Computers & computing: computational genomics, post- genomic, post- genomics; Drug discovery & development chemical genomics, chemogenomics; Functional genomics: biochemical genomics, comparative genomics, deductive genomics, forward genomics, functional genomics, lateral genomics, phylogenomics, physiological genomics, reverse genomics; SNPs & other Genetic variations: population genomics; Nanoscience & Miniaturization: nanogenomics, Pharmacogenomics: ecotoxicogenomics,  toxicogenomics

HUGO: Human Genome Organization, an international organization of scientists involved in the Human Genome Project, the global initiative to map and sequence the human genome. Established 1989 

Human Genome Project HGP: Horace Freeland Judson writes in "Talking about the genome" (Nature 409:769, 15 Feb. 2001) "The language we use about genetics and the genome project at times limits and distorts our own understanding, and the public understanding. Look at the phrase - or marketing slogan - 'the human-genome project'. In reality, of course we have not just one human genome but billions. ... Then, too, the entire phrase - the human- genome project: singular, definite, with a fixed end- point, completed by 2000, packaged so it could be sold to legislative bodies, to the people, to venture capitalists. But we knew from the start the genome project would never be complete. 

A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human genome. MeSH, 1990 Related terms: DDBJ, DOE, EMBL, GenBank, NCBI, NHGRI, RIKEN, Sanger Centre; Maps genetic & genomic   Sequencing  resequencing

Human Genome Project HGP- completion:  The completion of the draft human genome sequence has both symbolic and real implications for this next stage. The symbolic nature of the accomplishment is primarily the fact that people have been claiming for the past 15 or 16 years that the Human Genome Project is biology’s moon shot. The fact that it has been accomplished during the past year or so is very important since it connects with the policy makers and decision makers who control and govern the future of public funding for biological and other research in this country.

The real accomplishment for the life sciences has been the transition to big science, as illustrated by the dramatic decrease in the range of cost per sequence (Figure 2.1). In a way, the real transition to big- time science is evidenced by the large- scale sequencing centers that have cropped up over the last few years and accomplished sequencing the human genome in so timely a manner in both the public and private sector. The public has a conservatively estimated sequencing capacity of eight to ten million lanes per month (75- 80% pass rate, 450- 500 Phred20 bases). The private sector effort is much more difficult to estimate, but the capacity is roughly in ten to twenty million lanes per month. For reference, seven million lanes represent approximately one mammalian genome. These figures demonstrate that this country has a very powerful engine in place to deal with the genomes that will need to be sequenced in the months and years ahead. Ari Patrinos, US DOE CHI's GenomeLink 9.2 

The Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genesof the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.[1] It remains the world's largest collaborative biological project.[2] After the idea was picked up in 1984 by the US government when the planning started, the project formally launched in 1990 and was declared complete on April 14, 2003[3]. Funding came from the US government through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as well as numerous other groups from around the world. A parallel project was conducted outside government by the Celera Corporation, or Celera Genomics, which was formally launched in 1998. Most of the government-sponsored sequencing was performed in twenty universities and research centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Spain and China.[4] Wikipedia accessed 2018 Nov 8

When will the human genome project be complete? Jared Roach, Strategic Genomics,  2002

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium: Published the draft human genome sequence in Nature 15 Feb. 2001 See also Human Genome Project.

Joint Genome Initiative: Collaboration between Los Alamos National Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab and Oak Ridge National Lab. Organized in 1997.

Mendelian genetics: Classical genetics, focuses on monogenic genes with high penetrance, the tip of the iceberg of genetics. It is useful to remember that Mendelian genetics itself was a true paradigm shift, and not at all intuitively obvious.

This is poignantly described in Robin Henig's artfully crafted biography of Gregor Mendel The Monk in the Garden. Mendel was not recognized by scientists until 1900 --  35 years after his initial publication and 16 years after his death.  Those who heard his talks did not seem to understand them.  Some of the reprints he sent out have vanished.  Others were found (years later) with leaves uncut and unread.

It is also instructive to remember that Mendelian genetics were quite applicable to the breeding of plants and animals (including racehorses) with serious economic implications. This may well have encouraged Mendel's superiors to let him pursue his work with peas.

monogenic: Diseases caused by alterations in single genes. Single -gene disorders are also sometimes called Mendelian disorders since they  are usually transmitted in a manner such as that described by Mendel as simple recessive or dominant traits.  Compare multifactorial, polygenic.

multifactorial diseases: SNPs & other genetic variations
NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Bioinformatics

NHGRI  National Human Genome Research Institute: began as the National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR), which was established in 1989 to carry out the role of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the International Human Genome Project (HGP). The HGP was developed in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy and begun in 1990 to map the human genome. In 1993, NCHGR expanded its role on the NIH campus by establishing the Division of Intramural Research to apply genome technologies to the study of specific diseases. In 1996, the Center for Inherited Disease Research (CIDR) was also established (co-funded by eight NIH institutes and centers) to study the genetic components of complex disorders. In 1997 the United States Department of Health and Human Services renamed NCHGR the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), officially elevating it to the status of research institute - one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the NIH. With the human genome sequence complete since April 2003, scientists around the world have access to a database that greatly facilitates and accelerates the pace of biomedical research. The history of the HGP, the history of genomics, and the history of NHGRI, are inextricably intertwined.

nonlinear: Advances in genomic technologies are a mix of incremental improvements to existing technologies (linear) and occasionally, a truly new paradigm or breakthrough.  Related terms  complex; Business of biotechnology disruptive technologies, emerging technologies, 

optogenetics: A rapidly evolving field of technology that allows optical control of genetically targeted biological systems at high temporal and spatial resolution. By heterologous expression of light-sensitive microbial membrane proteins, opsins, cell type-specific depolarization or silencing can be optically induced on a millisecond time scale. … Although recent developments in optogenetics have largely focused on neuroscience it has lately been extended to other targets, including stem cell research and regenerative medicine. The optogenetic (r)evolution, Martin L Rein, Jan M. Deussing, Mol Genet Genomics. 2012 February; 287(2): 95–109, Published online 2011 December 20. doi:

"parts list": Now that the sequencing of the human genome is approaching completion, an important next step is to extract as much of the information contained in the genome as possible. All of the genes encoded in the genome should be enumerated, a task that is not as simple as once thought. Other data sets of high interest include all of the regulatory elements, all forms of structural RNA, recombination and replication signals, and all encoded proteins and their modified forms. In contrast to genomic sequence, which can in principle be determined completely, there are questions about whether any of these other data sets can be compiled with the same degree of completeness. It is not obvious that completeness is even conceivable in the case of some data sets, such as transcripts (given alternative splicing), regulatory elements, proteins (given isoforms), protein- protein and protein- nucleic acid interactions, and protein modifications. The desire for completeness will need to be balanced by cost-benefit considerations.  Beyond the beginning: The Future of Genomics, NHGRI, Dec. 12-14, 2001, Warrenton, VA

penetrance: The probability of expressing a phenotype given a genotype. Penetrance is described as either "complete" or "incomplete" … .Penetrance may also be dependent on a susceptible individual’s current age… incomplete penetrance is usually a matter of chance or modifiers in the genetic background. [NHLBI] 

Mendelian genetics focuses on genes with high penetrance. These were the easiest genes to identify. Related terms: SNPs & Genetic variations

pharmacogenomics: Pharmacogenomics

phenotype: The observable structural and functional characteristics of an organism determined by its genotype and modulated by its environment. IUPAC Biotech

The observed manifestation of a genotype, which may be expressed physically, biochemically or physiologically. [NHLBI]

Systematic collection and organization of data on phenotypes is still at an early stage.  The International Mouse Mutagenesis Consortium (IMMC), writing in the Human Genome issue of Science notes that improved phenotyping technologies are needed, as are "more efficient and reliable methods for archiving, managing, analyzing, displaying and disseminating the complex phenotype data sets resulting from mutagenesis programs, and that there are no large- scale phenotype databases. Phenotype vocabularies seem to be in the works and a Mouse Phenome Project is based at Jackson Labs, US.  IMMC JH Nadeau et. al "Functional Annotation of Mouse Genome Sequences" Science 291: 1251-1255 Feb. 16, 2001 

From a cellular point of view, the phenotype can be divided into two parts – the proteome and the metabolome, the observed phenotype being their summation. Both of these phenotypes are important, but in different ways. The changes observed in the metabolome directly indicate what system changes (i.e. genes or drugs) affect the function of which pathways. As well, the exact point(s) in the pathway affected can be determined. The proteins involved in these pathways may be useful drug or pesticide targets.

See note on variant meanings for phenotype, genome and genotype under genome definition, Journal of Theoretical Biology 1997 article.  Narrower term: human phenotypes

Mammalian Phenotype Browser, MGI Mouse Genome Informatics, Jackson Laboratory, Compare genotype. Related terms: genetic architecture   immunophenotyping  Microarrays & protein arrays  phenotype array; -Omes & -omics  metabolomics, phenome, phenomics; Drug discovery & development  phenotypic screening; Functional genomics phenotypic profiling; Microarrays  phenotype array; -Omes & -omics  metabolomics, phenome, phenomics;  Model & other organisms   Pharmacogenomics genotype- to- phenotype, phenotype standards, phenotype- to- genotype  Narrower terms: metabolic phenotypes: Metabolic engineering & profiling  molecular phenotyping: Pharmacogenomics  reaction phenotypes: Metabolic engineering & profiling

phenotyping:  The process of assigning phenotypes to people or other organisms. Narrower terms: Clinical informatics: computable phenotypes Pharmacogenomics immunophenotyping, molecular phenotyping; : Microscopy image- based phenotyping

phylogenomics, physiological genomics: Phylogenomics

polygenic:  The next scientific frontier, however, will be those polygenic disorders involving a combination of gene polymorphisms, each of which contributes in some small way to pathology. Examples of such conditions include a variety of mental and behavioral problems (alcoholism, schizophrenia, depression), as well as physiological disorders that involve complex interactions between genetics and environment (atherosclerosis, hypertension). These problems will require the ability to look at patterns of gene expression at multiple stages of disease/ disorder progression and under a variety of physiological and environmental conditions. Array technologies will provide just such capabilities.  Genetic disorder resulting from the combined action of alleles of more than one gene (e.g. heart disease, diabetes and some cancers). Although such disorders are inherited, they depend on the simultaneous presence of several alleles; thus the hereditary patterns are usually more complex than those of single gene disorders. [DOE]  [Axel Kahn] also suggests that the notion of interacting genetic factors in polygenic conditions remains an uncertainty. "Thus far, when we have looked at what we have thought of as multifactorial polygenic conditions, we have only seen diseases with several monogenic causes. Thus for each of a number of conditions we can identify several separate genes, each of which on its own in different patients is associated with diseases which we classify as diabetes or Alzheimer’s disease or obesity. We simply have not really started looking at the additive or multiplicative contributions of several factors to disease inheritance." John. Hodgson "Crystal gazing the new Biotechnologies" Nature Biotechnology 18: 29- 31 Jan 2000  Related terms: Molecular Medicine: behavior genomics; SNPs & genetic variations  multigenic, oligogenic, Gene definitions: pleiotropy. 

post-genomic era: The genome era is generally regarded to have started on 28 July 1995, with the publication of the genome of the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. "A point of entry into genomics" Nature Genetics 23:273 Nov. 1999

But the human mitochondrial genome was sequenced in 1981 and published in Nature 290 (5806): 457- 465, Apr. 9, 1981. Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome by S. Anderson et. al.

[Francis Collins] began his presentation by taking issue with the term "post-genomics era." He queries whether his means that from the beginning of the universe until 2001 we were in the "pre-genome era," and then suddenly, "bang" we moved into the past-genome era (leading one to wonder what happened to the genome era). He suggested that it was presumptuous to say that the Human Genome Project is already behind us.  He pointed out that proteomics is a subset of genomics, and genomics is more than sequencing genomes, which will be ongoing for decades to come. Defining the Mandate of Proteomics in the Post- Genomics Era, Board on International Scientific Organizations, National Academy of Sciences, 2002 

The "post- genomic era" holds phenomenal promise for identifying the mechanistic bases of organismal development, metabolic  processes, and disease, and we can confidently predict that bioinformatics research will have a dramatic impact on improving  our understanding of such diverse areas as the regulation of gene expression, protein structure determination, comparative  evolution, and drug discovery. The availability of virtually complete data sets also makes negative data informative: by mapping entire pathways, for example, it becomes interesting to ask not only what is present, but also what is absent. David Roos "Bioinformatics -- Trying to Swim in a Sea of Data" Science 291:1260-1261 Feb. 16, 2001

Post-genomic can also refer to the increasing emphasis on functional genomics. With an increasing number of organisms for which we have (more or less) complete genomes we are beginning to see glimpses of the power of having fully mapped sequences. Still, in most contexts talk about being "post- genomic" seems a little premature. "Post Mendelian" seems more accurate as we move from an era in which genetics has been rooted in monogenic diseases with high penetrance to a greater awareness (but limited understanding) of polygenic diseases (and traits) often with relatively low penetrance. However with the publication of the draft human sequences in Feb. 2001 we are beginning to be truly "post- genomic".

post-genomics: The general rubric "post- genomics" encompasses an increasingly broad array of topic areas -- essentially, anything connected with teasing higher biological meaning and function out of raw sequence data. Science Online "Functional genomics research   Related terms: -Omes & -omics

RIKEN: Rikagaku Kenkyusy Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan.

Sanger Centre, UK: A genome research centre founded by the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council. Our purpose is to further the knowledge of genomes, particularly through large scale sequencing and analysis.

whole genome: There are several reasons for completely sequencing a genome.  The first and most simple reason is that it provides a basis for the discovery of all the genes. Despite the power of cDNA analysis and the enormous value in interpreting genome sequence, it is now generally recognized that a direct look at the genome is needed to complete the inventory of genes. Second, the sequence shows the long- range relationships between genes and provides the structural and control elements that must lie among them. Third, it provides a set of tools for future experimentation, where any sequence may be valuable and completeness is the key. Fourth, sequencing provides an index to draw in and organize all genetic information about the organism.  Fifth, and most important over time, is that the whole is an archives for the future, containing all the genetic information required to make the organism (the greater part of which is not yet understood). C. elegans Sequencing Consortium “Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans; A platform for investigating biology” Science 282: 2013 Dec 11 1998

Genomics resources
DOE, Genome Glossary, Genome Science Program
FAO Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture: Revised and augmented edition, Food and Agricultural Organization, Not just for food or agriculture. 
Commonly used Genome Terms
NCBI Genomes and Maps
NHGRI (National Human Genome Research Institute), Glossary of Genetic Terms, 250+ definitions.   Includes extended audio definitions.

All about the Human Genome Project, NHGRI, NIH, US, 2005 
Human Genome Project Working Draft Univ. of California Santa Cruz, US,
International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium special issue: Nature 409 (6822) 15 Feb., 2001 
Celera Genomics special issue: Science 291 (5507) Feb. 16, 2001

Genomics Conferences

How to look for other unfamiliar  terms

IUPAC definitions are reprinted with the permission of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

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